What is Second Derivative Test
In mathematics, the meaning of the second derivative stands for a function which is the derivative of the derivative of that function. Would you want to know how to write a second derivative in mathematical expression? Write it as: – f 00(x) or as d 2 f dx2. Now do you know the utility of the first derivative with respect to the second derivative? While the first derivative can make us aware if the function is increasing or decreasing, the second derivative puts into the picture if the first derivative is increasing or decreasing.
Conditions of Concavity for Second Derivative Test
Always keep in mind that, if the 2nd derivative is positive, it states that the first derivative is increasing, so that the slope of the line of tangent to the function is increasing as x increases. We experience this occurrence graphically as the curve of the graph being concave up, that is, fashioned like a parabola opening upward.
Now, in the similar vein, if the second derivative comes about as negative, then the first derivative is decreasing, in order as the slope of the tangent to the function is decreasing as ‘x’ increases. Illustratively in Graphs, we notice this as the curve of the graph which is concave down, that is, modeled like a parabola opening downward. At the points where the second derivative is 0, we do not acquire knowledge of anything with respect to the shape of the graph: it may either be concave up or concave down, or it may be changing all- through concave up to concave down or vice-versa. Hence, to sum up:
If d 2 f dx2 (p) is greater than 0 at x = p, then f(x) is concave up at x = p.
If d 2 f dx2 (p) is lesser than 0 at x = p, then f(x) is concave down at x = p.
If d 2 f dx2 (p) is 0 at x = p, then we are unaware of anything new about the attitude of f(x) at x = p.
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Utility of Second Derivative Test
The second derivative test is factually less dominant than the first derivative test. That clearly made you curious as to why then is it ever used? A principal reason is that in conditions where it is conclusive, the second derivative test is commonly and comparatively easier to apply. This, in turn, is due to the reason that the second derivative test solely needs the calculation of formal expressions for derivatives. As well, it requires the assessment of the symbols of these expressions at preferably a point than on an interval. Assessments at a point usually necessitate less arithmetic/ algebraic maneuver or handling.
Moreover, a 2nd derivative test can help identify whether a stationary point is a Local Maxima or a Local Minima or if it is a global maxima/global minima. It is found out by comparing the value of local maxima/minima with other global maxima/global minima.
Usability of Second Derivative Test
The second derivative test is often most useful when seeking to compute a relative maximum or minimum if a function has a first derivative that is (0) at a particular point. Since the first derivative test is found lacking or fall flat at this point, the point is an inflection point. The second derivative test commits on the symbol of the second derivative at that point. If it is negative, the point is a relative maximum, whereas if it is positive, the point is a relative minimum.
Find and use the second derivative of a function
Take f(x) = 3x 3 − 6x 2 + 2x − 1.
f 0 (x) = 9x 2 − 12x + 2, and f 00(x) = 18x − 12.
That being so, at x = 0,
The 2nd derivative of f(x) is −12,
So we have an understanding that the graph of f(x) is concave down at x = 0.
Similarly, at x = 1, the 2nd derivative of f(x) is f 00(1) = 18 1 − 12 = 18 − 12 = 6,
Thus, the graph of f(x) rests at concave up at x = 1
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Did You Know
There is also a one-sided version of 2nd derivative test
a one-sided version works as an alternative or say a remedial option for cases to not revert to the first derivative test.
If the one-sided derivatives of f’ is available at c, then we can check that both one-sided derivatives of f’ have the sign for f” set forth