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Arithmetic is one of the oldest and most essential branches of mathematics and originates from the Greek word arithmos, meaning count. It involves the analysis of numbers, particularly the characteristics of conventional operations such as addition, subtraction, division and multiplication.

### Arithmetic operations:

The fundamental operations in arithmetic are addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication, although the scope contains many other updated operations.

### Addition (+):

Addition is one of the basic arithmetic operations. Addition blends two or more values in a single term in simple forms, for example: 2 + 5 = 7, 6 + 2 = 8.

The process for adding more than two values is called summation which involves techniques of inserting n number of values.

Same result is provided by adding 0 to any value. The inverse element of addition is the opposite of any value, meaning that adding the additive identity in relation to any digit to the digit itself. For example, the opposite of 5 is-5, so 5 +(-5) =0.

### Subtraction (−):

Subtraction can be classified as an addition reverse. The difference between two values is determined by subtraction i.e. the minuend minus the subtrahend. The discrepancy is positive if the minuend is greater than the subtrahend. The answer is negative if the minuend is less than the subtrahend, and 0 if the numbers are equal.

### Multiplication (×):

Multiplication often incorporates two values in a single value or product, such as addition and subtraction. The two initial quantities are known as the multiplicand and the multiplier.

A and b’s product are expressed as either a·b or a x b. It is often represented as, a*b (* is called asterisk) in computer languages where only characters found in keyboards are used.

### Division (÷):

Division is multiplication’s inverse. This determines the two-number quotient, the dividend separated by the divider. The quotient is greater than 1 if the dividend for any well-defined positive number is greater than the dividend, otherwise, it is less than 1.

### 8 Magic Math Tricks for Arithmetic Calculations:

Imagine how simple and fascinating mathematics would be if you had the ability to calculate the problems with some tricks in a matter of seconds. There are various types of arithmetic operations such as subtraction, addition, multiplication, division, roots, squaring, powers, fractions, logarithms, etc. Here are some of the best tricks to make arithmetic calculations simple for students.

### 1. Addition of Ten Digits Numbers:

The introduction of two-digit numbers is achieved by using the basic principles of tens and unit positions:

Take the addition of two numbers as:

Now, split the second number into units and tens places as:

After that finish the tens unit addition as:

And finally, add the remaining unit place digit as:

### 2. Tricks for Subtraction:

Subtract 1946 from 2000

Add 4 in 1946, it will become 1950

Now subtract 1950 from 2000 and then add 4 in the result

It will become 50+4, and will be equal to 54.

### 3. Multiplication Tricks When Doing it with 15:

Let us consider,

The multiplication of two numbers such as

and

Now,

Adding zero at the end of the first number,

We get

.

Now, dividing this number by

,

We get

Now, add the resultant number with

, so

.

Thus, the answer for

and

is

.

### 4. Quick Multiplication by Breaking Down Numbers:

Let us assume the numbers as

and

Now, first split the number

,

We get (20+4)

Now multiply 16 with (20+4)

Finally, multiply the number, 320+64=384

Thus, the multiplication of the two numbers

that gives the solution

.

### 5. To Find Out the Percentage:

If we have to find the percentage of the number

of

, just follow the steps.

For the number given, move the decimal point by one location.

becomes

Then divide the number

by 2,

We get

.

is the required solution for the given problem.

### 6. Divisibility Rules:

The numbers which can be divided equally by certain numbers:

If a number is an even number and ends with numbers such as 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8, then the number is divisible by 2.

If the sum of the digits of the number is divisible by 3, then the number is also divisible by 3.

Now consider the number as

and 3.

If the last two digits of the number are divisible by 4, then the number is divisible by 4.

Example: Let’s take a number as

.

The last two digits are 12 and 12 is the number which is divisible by 4.

If any number is ending with the last digit as 0 or 5, then the number is divisible by 5.

Because 6 is the sum of 2 and 3, it complies with rule 2 and rule 3 of the divisibility.

If the last digit of the number is divisible by 8, then the number is divisible by 8.

If a number can be divided by 9, then the sum of the numbers is divided by 9.

Let’s take the example as

.

And the number 18 is divisible by 9.

If the final number is 0, it can be divided by 10.

### 7. Calculation of Squares that Ends with the Digit 5

Let us now consider the number

for finding its square.

Only start with the last two-digit answer, which is

, because any number which is ending with 5 has its square as

.

Take the number

as the first digit.

That’s

and then take the number followed by

which is

.

Now,

Multiply

and

with each other,

We get the number as

.

Finally, write number

in the prefix and then combine what we have already written with

.

Thus, the answer is

.