# Continuity Formulas

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## Formula Sheet of Continuity

If you are having any doubts on how to approach while solving problems of Continuity you can have a look at the List of Continuity Formulae provided. Make the most out of the Continuity Formulas Cheat Sheet & Tables and get to know the concept much better. You will find the Formulas extremely helpful and they save you plenty of time while solving your problems.

1. Continuity of a function at a point

A function f(x) is said to be continuous at a point x = a

i.e. If right hand limit at ‘a’ = left hand limit at ‘a’ = value of the function at ‘a’.

If \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a^{+}}\)f(x) = \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a^{-}}\)f(x) = f(a)

- f(x) is said to be continuous from the left at x = a if \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a^{-}}\) f(x) = f(a).
- f(x) is said to be continuous from the right at x = a if \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a^{+}}\) f(x) = f(a).
- If \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a}\) f(x) does not exist or \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a}\) f(x) ≠ f(a), then f(x) is said to be discontinuous at x = a.

2. Continuity of a function in an interval

(a) A function f(x) is said to be continuous in an open interval (a, b) if it is continuous at every point in (a, b).

(b) A function f(x) is said to be continuous in the closed interval [a, b] if it is

- Continuous at every point of the open interval (a, b).
- Right continuous at x = a.
- Left continuous at x = b.

3. Continuous functions

A function is said to be continuous function if it is continuous at every point in its domain. Following are examples of some continuous function.

- f(x) = x (Identity function)
- f(x) = C (Constant function)
- f(x) = x
^{2} - f(x) = a
_{0}x^{n}+ a_{0}x^{n-1}+ ….+ a^{n}(Polynomial) - f(x) = |x|, x + |x|, x – |x|, x|x|
- f(x) = sin x, f(x) = cos x
- f(x) = e
^{x}, f(x) = a^{x}, a > 0 - f(x) = log x, f(x) = log
_{a}x, a > 0 - f(x) = sinh x, cosh x, tanh x

4. Discontinuous functions

- f(x) = 1/x at x = 0
- f(x) = e
^{1/x}at x = 0 - f(x) = sin (1/x), f(x) = cos(1/x) at x = 0
- f(x) = [x] at every integer
- f(x) = x – [x] at every integer
- f(x) = tan x, f(x) = sec x when x = (2n + 1) \(\frac{\pi}{2}\), n ∈ Z.
- f(x) = cot x, f(x) = cosec x when x = nπ, n ∈ Z.
- f(x) = coth x, f(x) = cosech x at x = 0.

5. Properties of continuous function

If f(x) and g(x) are continuous functions then following are also continuous functions:

- f(x) + g(x)
- f(x) – g(x)
- f(x). g(x)
- λf(x), where λ is a constant
- f(x)/g(x), if g(x) ≠ 0
- f[g(x)]

6. Some Important points

(i) When we say that the function f(x) is continuous at a point x = a, it mean that at point (a, f(a)) graph is untraken.

(ii) Kinds of discontinuity

- \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a^{-}}\) f(x) = \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a^{+}}\) f(x), then f is said to have non “removal discontinuity” of first kind.
- \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a^{-}}\) f(x) ≠ \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a^{+}}\) f(x), then f is said to have non removal discontinuity of first kind.
- At least one of \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a^{-}}\) f(x) or \(\lim _{x \rightarrow a^{+}}\) f(x) does not exist then f is said to have discontinuity of 2
^{nd}kind at x = a - Continuity of composite function: If the function u = f(x) is continuous at the point x = a and the function y = g(u) is continuous at the point u = f(a) then composite function y = (gof)(x) = g(f(x)) is continuous at point x = a